The effect of rootstocks on the concentration of phenolic compounds in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines


  • Ricardo Allebrandt Centro Universitário Dinâmica das Cataratas
  • Marcelo Alves Moreira Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina
  • José Luiz Marcon Filho Vinícola Legado
  • Douglas André Würz Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina - Câmpus Canoinhas
  • Betina Pereira De Bem Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina
  • Leo Rufato Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina
  • Adrielen Tamiris Canossa Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina



Vitis vinifera, grafting, flavonoids


Over a century ago, viticulture went from the cultivation of one species or grape variety to the cultivation of a plant composed of two genotypes: one responsible for growing the root system and the other for producing the fruit. To adapt to this new reality, a great amount of research has been done, with various studies ranging from grafting techniques to sensory analysis . Despite numerous studies on the influence of rootstocks on scion performance, many aspects of this interaction are still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effect that different rootstocks have on the concentration of phenolic compounds in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines produced in the Southern Highlands of Santa Catarina, Brazil, by testing rootstocks 3309C and 101-14Mgt, in addition to P1103. Experiments were conducted in the municipalities of Painel (28°01’S, 50°08’W and 1,200 m) and São Joaquim (28°14’S, 49°58’W and 1,300 m) during the 2015, 2016, and 2017 vintages to assess the concentrations of flavonoid and non-flavonoid compounds in the wines. The results indicate that different rootstocks affect the wines’ phenolic composition. The concentration of flavonoid compounds increases with rootstock 3309C, compared to the commonly used rootstock P1103, in the Southern Highlands of Santa Catarina.



ALLEBRANDT R et al. 2015. Fenologia da variedade Merlot produzida sobre três porta-enxertos em elevadas altitudes de Santa Catarina. Revista Brasileira de Viticultura e Enologia 7: 36-46.

BOGS J et al. 2006. Identification of the flavonoid hydroxylases from grapevine and their regulation during fruit development. Plant Physiology 140: 279-291.

BOSS PK et al. 1996. Expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway genes in red and white grapes. Plant molecular biology 32: 565-569.

CADAHÍA E et al. 2009. Chemical and chromatic characteristics of Tempranillo, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from DO Navarra aged in Spanish and French oak barrels. Food Chemistry 115: 639-649.

CORTELL JM et al. 2005. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir) and wine proanthocyanidins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53: 5798-5808.

CORTELL JM & KENNEDY JA. 2006. Effect of shading on accumulation of flavonoid compounds in (Vitis vinifera L.) pinot noir fruit and extraction in a model system. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54: 8510-8520.

CHALKER-SCOTT L. 1999. Environmental significance of anthocyanins in plant stress responses. Photochemistry and Photobiology 70: 1-9.

CHEYNIER V & RIGAUD J. 1986. HPLC separation and characterization of flavonols in the skins of Vitis vinifera var. Cinsault. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 37: 248-252.

DOWNEY MO et al. 2004. The effect of bunch shading on berry development and flavonoid accumulation in Shiraz grapes. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 10: 55-73.

FERREIRA-LIMA NE et al. 2013. Characterization of Goethe white wines: influence of different storage conditions on the wine evolution during bottle aging. European Food Research and Technology 237: 509-520.

GIL M et al. 2015. Influence of berry size on red wine colour and composition. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 21: 200-212.

GONZALEZ-SAN JOSE M et al. 1990. Anthocyanins as parameters for differentiating wines by grape variety, wine-growing region, and wine-making methods. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 3: 54-66.

JOGAIAH S et al. 2015. Regulation of fruit and wine quality parameters of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) by rootstocks in semiarid regions of India. Vitis 54: 65-72.

MIELE A & RIZZON LA. 2019. Rootstock-scion interaction: 5. Effect on the evolution of Cabernet Sauvignon grape riepening. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura 41: 1-10.

OLLAT N et al. 2015. Rootstocks as a component of adaptation to environment. In: GEROS H et al. (Ed.). Grapevine in a changing environment: a molecular and ecophysiological perspective. Nova Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 68-108.

POUGET R. 1986. Usefulness of rootstocks for controlling vine vigour and improving wine quality. In: Symposium on Grapevine Canopy and Vigor Management, XXII IHC 206. Leuven: ISHS Acta Horticulturae 206: 109-118.

SANTOS-BUELGA C & SCALBERT A. 2000. Proanthocyanidins and tannin-like compounds–nature, occurrence, dietary intake and effects on nutrition and health. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 80: 1094-1117.

SOLOVCHENKO A & SCHMITZ-EIBERGER M. 2003. Significance of skin flavonoids for UV-B-protection in apple fruits. Journal of Experimental Botany 54: 1977-1984.

SPAYD SE et al. 2002. Separation of sunlight and temperature effects on the composition of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot berries. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 53: 171-182.

SPIORA MJ & GUTIERREZ GRANDA MJ. 1998. Effect of pre-veraison irrigation cut off and skin contact time on composition color, and phenolic content of young Cabernet Sauvignon wines in Spain. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 49: 153-161.

TIAN RR et al. 2009. Comparison of phenolic acids and flavan-3-ols during wine fermentation of grapes with different harvest times. Molecules 14: 827-838.

WINKEL-SHIRLEY B. 2002. Biosynthesis of flavonoids and effects of stress. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 5: 218-223.





Research Article - Science of Plants and Derived Products