Monitoring air temperature for the thermal comfort and conservation of forests

Authors

  • Alvaro Boson de Faria Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5965/223811712012021032

Keywords:

atlantic forest, el niño, droughts, forest-based stress index (FBS), heat waves, , forest health protection

Abstract

Heat waves have raised concerns about the damage they do to ecosystem services, and combined with droughts, excessive heat has favored the rise in tree mortality worldwide. Based on the hypothesis that the southwestern region of the state of Paraná presents suitable conditions for the occurrence of anomalous weather events characterized as summer heat waves, this study was conducted to observe air temperature patterns in the municipality of Dois Vizinhos between 2018 and 2020. Its specific objectives were to i) determine which periods of the day during the summer in Dois Vizinhos registered the highest air temperatures; ii) verify the events characterized as heat waves between the years 2018 and 2020 using the proposed forest-based stress index (FBS); iii) discuss the feasibility of the FBS index by making reference to other environmental monitoring indices; and iv) present arguments on aspects of ecophysiology and forest conservation. The results showed that the night period between 9 p.m. and 3 a.m. in Dois Vizinhos in summer 2020 was significantly hotter in the three years of the study. The interval between 3 p.m. and 9 p.m. in summer 2020 was significantly hotter among the hourly categories recorded. According to the FBS index, there were a total of 36 episodes characterized as Heat Waves in this region, including the nighttime.

References

ALLEN CD. 2009. Climate-induced forest dieback: an escalating global phenomenon? Unasylva 60: 231-232.

ALLEN CD et al. 2010. A global overview of drought and heat-induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests. Forest Ecology and Management 259: 660-684.

ALVARES CA et al. 2013. Köppen’s climate classification map for Brazil. Meteorologische Zeitschrift 22: 711-728.

ALVES MPA et al. 2016. Caracterização da forte onda de calor de 2014 em Santa Catarina. Ciência e Natura 36: 309-325.

AUBIN I et al. 2018. Tree vulnerability to climate change: improving exposure-based assessments using traits as indicators of sensitivity. Ecosphere 9: 1-24.

BITENCOURT DP et al. 2016. Frequência, duração, abrangência espacial e intensidade das ondas de calor no Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia 31: 506-517.

BURAS A et al. 2020. Quantifying impacts of the 2018 drought on European ecosystems in comparison to 2003. Biogeosciences 17: 1655-1672.

CARDONA OD et al. 2012. Determinants of risk: exposure and vulnerability. In: FIELD CB et al. (Ed.). Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.65-108.

CASTRO FARIA AB et al. 2019. Pinheiros antigos podem entrar em declínio devido ao efeito das mudanças climáticas. BIOFIX 4: 16-25.

CUNNINGHAM SC & READ J. 2003. Do temperate rainforest trees have a greater ability to acclimate to changing temperatures than tropical rainforest trees? The New Phytologist 157: 55-64.

FANG O et al. 2018. Tree rings reveal a major episode of Forest mortality in the late 18th century on the Tibetan Plateau. Global and Planetary Change 163: 44-50.

FIRPO MAF et al. 2012. Climatologia e variabilidade sazonal do número de ondas de calor e de frio no Rio Grande Do Sul associadas ao ENOS. Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia 27: 95-106.

GEIRINHAS JLM. 2016. Caracterização Climática e Sinóptica das Ondas de Calor no Brasil. Dissertação. (Mestrado em Geofísica). Lisboa: Universidade de Lisboa. 83p.

HARTMANN H et al. 2015. Research frontiers in drought-induced tree mortality: crossing scales and disciplines. New Phytologist 205: 965-969.

HARTMANN H et al. 2018. Monitoring global tree mortality patterns and trends. Report from the VW symposium “Crossing scales and disciplines to identify global trends of tree mortality as indicators of forest health”. New Phytologist 217: 984-987.

IPCC. 2014. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report - Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the IPCC. Genova: IPCC. 151p.

KIRKPATRICK SEP & LEWIS SC. 2020. Increasing trends in regional heatwaves. Nature communications 11: 1-8.

KOGIMA KC & ELY DF. 2019. Índices térmicos para a identificação de ondas de calor aplicados ao estado do Paraná, Brasil. Geo UERJ 34: 1-37.

MARENGO JA. 2014. O futuro clima do Brasil. Revista USP 103: 25-32.

MORALES MS et al. 2020. Six hundred years of South American tree rings reveal an increase in severe hydroclimatic eventos since mid-20th century. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 117: 16816-16823.

RADINOVIÉ D & CURIÉ M. 2012. Criteria for heat and cold wave duration indexes. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 107: 505-510.

SILVA WL et al. 2015. Tendências observadas em indicadores de extremos climáticos de temperatura e precipitação no estado do Paraná. Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia 30: 181-194.

STOVALL AEL et al. 2019. Tree height explains mortality risk during an intense drought. Nature Communications 10: 4385.

TESKEY R et al. 2015. Responses of tree species to heat waves and extreme heat events. Plant, Cell and Environment 38: 1699-1712.

TOMASETTO MZC et al. 2009. Desenvolvimento local e agricultura familiar: o caso da produção de açúcar mascavo em Capanema - Paraná. Interações 10: 21-30.

TRUMBORE S. et al. 2015. Forest health and global change. Science 349: 814-818.

VARGAS GG & CORDERO SRA. 2013. Photosynthetic responses to temperature of two tropical rainforest tree species from Costa Rica. Trees 27: 1261-1270.

VIEIRA FMC et al. 2018. Probability distributions of frequency analysis of rainfall at the southwest region of Paraná State, Brazil. Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias 17: 260-266.

VINCENT LA et al. 2005. Observed Trends in Indices of Daily Temperature Extremes in South America 1960-2000. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 18: 5011-5023.

WMO. 2015. World Meteorological Organization. Heatwaves and Health: Guidance on Warning-System Development. Genebra: WMO. 114p.

Published

2021-03-29

Issue

Section

Research Article - Science of Plants and Derived Products