Bone mineralization in broilers fed diets containing different levels and sources of zinc and manganese

Authors

  • Bruna Helena Carvalho Pacheco Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade de São Paulo
  • Daniel Emygdio de Faria Filho Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade de São Paulo
  • Karina Márcia Ribeiro de Souza Nascimento Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade de São Paulo
  • Amanda Raquel de Miranda Caniatto Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade de São Paulo
  • Mariene Miyoko Natori
  • Douglas Emygdio de Faria Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade de São Paulo

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5965/223811711832019507

Keywords:

avian, requirements, mineral, bones.

Abstract

The objective of this study was to estimate the optimal zinc and manganese levels for bone mineralization of broilers  at  21 and 42 days of age, besides the methods comparison for quantifying the degree of bone mineralization, reliability test, execution time and effect of fat extraction, aiming to make feasible a more practical technical procedure in laboratory terms. In each experiment, 320 male chicks were housed in iron mesh metabolic cages, distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in eight treatments with five replicates of eight birds each. In experiment 1, zinc sulfate was included at 0, 60, and 100 mg/kg and zinc methionine at 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg/kg. In experiment 2, manganese sulfate was added at 0, 65, and 105 mg/kg and manganese methionine at 25, 45, 65, 85, and 105 mg/kg. The evaluated trace minerals (zinc and manganese) did not interfere in the evaluated bone characteristics, regardless of source or level. The degree of bone mineralization increased according to the concentration of zinc and manganese in the diet, regardless of source of these trace elements. The most appropriate method to determine the zinc and manganese content is with the use of tibias. There is no need to extract fat from the tibia to determine the zinc or manganese content, and the analysis can be performed with less time of execution without detriment of the results.

References

AO T et al. 2009. Effects of feeding different forms of zinc and copper on the performance and tissue mineral content of chicks. Poultry Science 88: 2171-2175.

AOAC. 1995. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 16.ed. v.2. Arlington: AOAC. 474p.

AOAC. 2000. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 17.ed. Washington: AOAC. p.61-62.

BAO YM & CHOCT M. 2009. Trace mineral nutrition for broiler chickens and prospects of application of organically complexed trace mineral: a review. Animal Production Science 49: 269-282.

BROOKS MA et al. 2013. Bioavailability in chicks of zinc from zinc propionate. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research 22: 153-159.

GARCIA AR & DALE N. 2004. Foot ash as na effective diagnostic tool to evaluate boné mineralization problems in broiler chickens. In: International Poultry Scientific Forum. Abstracts…. Georgia: University of Georgia. p.1782.

GARCIA AR & DALE NM. 2006. Foot ash as a means of quantifying bone mineralization in chicks. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research 15: 103-109.

GOMES PC et al. 2008. Exigências nutricionais de zinco para frangos de corte machos e fêmeas na fase inicial. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 37: 79-83.

GOMES PC et al. 2009. Níveis nutricionais de zinco para frangos de corte machos e fêmeas nas fases de crescimento e terminação. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 38: 1719-1725.

HUANG YL et al. 2007. Na optimal dietary zinc level of broiler chicks fed a corn-soybean meal diet. Poultry Science 86: 2582-2589.

HUANG YL et al. 2009. Relative bioavailabilities of organic zinc sources with different chelation strengths for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet. Journal of Animal Science 87: 2038-2046.

LIU SB et al. 2013. The effectiveness of zinc proteinate for chicks fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research 22: 396-403.

PACHECO et al. 2017. Dietary levels of zinc and manganese on the performance of broilers between 1 to 42 days of age. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola 19: 171-178.

ROSTAGNO HS et al. 2005. Tabelas brasileiras para aves e suínos: composição de alimentos e exigências nutricionais. 2.ed. Viçosa: UFV. 186p.

SAKOMURA NK & ROSTAGNO HS. 2007. Métodos de pesquisa em nutrição de monogástricos. Jaboticabal: FUNEP. 283p.

SAHRAEI M et al. 2013. Estimation of the relative bioavailability of several zinc sources for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet. The Journal of Poultry Science 50: 53-59.

SAS. 2004. Statistical Analyses System. User´s guide: statistic. 12.ed. New York: SCOTT ML & Associates. 1686p.

STAR L et al. 2012. Bioavailability of organic and inorganic zinc sources in male broilers. Poultry Science 91: 3115-3120.

SUNDER GS et al. 2011. Effect of supplemental inorganic Zn and Mn and their interactions on the performance of broiler chicken, mineral bioavailability and imumune response. Biological Trace Element Research 139: 177-187.

SUNDER GS et al. 2013. Effect of supplemental organic Zn and Mn on broiler performance, bone measures, tissue mineral uptake and immune response at 35 days of age. Poultry Science 3: 1-11.

SUTTLE NF. 2010. Mineral nutrition of livestock. 4.ed. Oxfordshire: CABI. 587p.

ŚWIĄTKIEWICZ S et al. 2014. The efficacy of organic minerals in poultry nutrition: review and implications of recent studies. World's Poultry Science Journal 70: 475-486.

YAN F et al. 2005. Comparison of methods to evaluate bone mineralization. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research 14: 492-498.

YAN F & WALDROUP PW. 2006. Evaluation of Mintrex® manganese as a source of manganese for young broilers. International Journal of Poultry Science 5: 708-703.

Published

2019-12-12

Issue

Section

Research Article - Science of Animals and Derived Products