A Criação e o Desenvolvimento Inicial das Forças de Defesa do Zimbábue (ZDF) 1980-93

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5965/2175180313322021e0104

Resumo

Em 2017 deu-se um Golpe de Estado no Zimbábue, um evento raro na parte sul de África, mas infelizmente comum no resto do continente. Este artigo aborda o início da politização das Forças de Defesa do Zimbábue (ZDF) durante os anos 1980. No final da guerra de independência em 1980, as ZDF formaram-se como uma amálgama de ex-militares da Rodésia e insurgentes dos movimentos de libertação da União do Povo Africano do Zimbábue (ZAPU) e da União Nacional Africano do Zimbábue (ZANU). Os militares da ZANU passaram a dominar as novas Forças Armadas do Zimbábue devido à falta de um acordo específico sobre o processo de integração, conseguindo pela superioridade numérica e o sucesso eleitoral da ZANU que lhe conferiu um poder político. Durante o exercício de integração da ZDF no início dos anos 1980, os conselheiros britânicos tentaram criar uma força de estilo ocidental, mas agiram pragmaticamente. Por outro lados instrutores norte-coreanos ajudaram a criar uma Brigada afiliada à ZANU funcionando como uma milícia do partido. Além disso, a desestabilização sul-africana e a rápida saída de ex-oficiais da Rodésia abriram espaço para a promoção acelerada de ex-insurgentes, na sua maioria filiados ao governo de ZANU. Por último, a maior “ZANUização” das ZDF ocorreram no contexto das operações no sudoeste do Zimbábue, onde eliminaram as forças da ZAPU como um movimento político de oposição e conduziu atrocidades. Tal como em Moçambique, onde as tropas do Zimbábue cooperaram como aliados de exércitos “politizados” de estados vizinhos.

Biografia do Autor

Timothy Stapleton, University of Calgary

Ph.D. of History by Dalhousie University.

Professor at the Department of History of the University of Calgary

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Publicado

2021-04-30

Como Citar

Stapleton, T. (2021). A Criação e o Desenvolvimento Inicial das Forças de Defesa do Zimbábue (ZDF) 1980-93. Revista Tempo E Argumento, 13(32), e0104. https://doi.org/10.5965/2175180313322021e0104