A crise do ornamento: avaliação e divergências interculturais nas artes visuais do século dezenove e princípios do século vinte

Autores

  • Barbara von Orelli-Messerli University of Zurich

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5965/2175234612272020011

Palavras-chave:

ornamento, arquitetura, artes aplicadas, design, século dezenove, Art Déco, Modernismo

Resumo

Do começo do século XIX até o presente, o ornamento enfrentou diferentes crises em virtude de não ser uma arte autônoma, mas tradicionalmente ligada a uma superfície, seja ela arquitetura ou artes aplicadas. O destino do ornamento variou, de acordo com os principais teóricos e críticos destes campos. Em 1812, Percier e Fontaine exortaram arquitetos e artífices a usar o ornamento com consciência e cuidado. Gottfried Semper poderia até conceber as artes aplicadas sem ornamento e sua preocupação máxima era mostrar a função original que os objetos haviam perdido ao longo do tempo. Ele queria elucidar o propósito de um objeto, não somente de um ponto de vista functional, mas também iconográfico. Christopher Dresser, que possuía experiência como biólogo e “ornamentista”, foi o primeiro designer industrial a criar objetos sem ornamento, seguindo a influência da arte japonesa. O sinal de morte do ornamento aparentemente soou em 1908, com a conferência Ornamento e Crime, de Adolf Loos. A subsequente oposição entre Art Déco e Modernismo foi um choque de culturas, perceptível até hoje entre arquitetos e histo-riadores da arte. Em determinado momento, como estudos recentes apontaram, houve uma fusão destes dois movimentos artísticos. Atualmente, o ornamento retornou e foi reintegrado à arquitetura em uma nova maneira e espírito.

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Biografia do Autor

Barbara von Orelli-Messerli, University of Zurich

Barbara von Orelli-Messerli holds the title of ‘Privatdozent’ at the University of Zurich and teaches Art history with a special focus on 19th and 20th century applied arts and design. She habilitated in art history at the University of Zurich in 2007. Before, from 1998 to 2003, she was director of studies of the Kunst + Beruf post-diploma program at the University of Bern. For many years she was a research associate at the Gewerbemuseum Winterthur. Her habilitation treatise thesis was on Gottfried Semper and his designs for the applied arts.

 

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Publicado

2020-05-01

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ORELLI-MESSERLI, Barbara von. A crise do ornamento: avaliação e divergências interculturais nas artes visuais do século dezenove e princípios do século vinte. Palíndromo, Florianópolis, v. 12, n. 27, p. 011–033, 2020. DOI: 10.5965/2175234612272020011. Disponível em: https://periodicos.udesc.br/index.php/palindromo/article/view/17290. Acesso em: 17 abr. 2024.

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